Historically, pickling is one of the oldest preservation methods of several foodstuffs such as vegetables, fruits, fish, and meat. Pickling imparts unique and desirable changes in flavor, texture and color that take place over time in fermented pickles. Microorganisms (mainly lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcaceae, Bacilli, yeasts, and filamentous fungi) play a pivotal role in the pickling of foodstuffs while affecting the quality and safety of the final product. This review focuses on the common traditional fermented pickles and their nutritional, therapeutic, and economic potentials. Furthermore, the technological progress in screening microbial communities associated with the traditional pickles is summarized. Finally, this paper will tackle with the role of pickles in filing the gap in food security, the safety aspect of traditional pickles and biofortication as an interesting technique to improve the quality of traditional pickles.